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ataturkun-hayati-ingilizce

 

-ATATÜRK'ün HAYATI İNGİLİZCE-English
 
Atatürkün HayatıAtatürk, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1881, LIFE Kocakasim District, Salonika Street, a three-storey pink house Islahhane was born. His father, Ali Riza Efendi, the mother was. His paternal grandfather, Hafiz Ahmed Efendi, XIV-XV. centuries Konya and Aydin Yoruk of thing is settled in Macedonia. His mother is the daughter of an old Turkish family settled in the town of Langasa near Salonika. Militia officer, clerk and lumber trader pious foundation Ali Riza Efendi, was married in 1871 Zübeyde. Four of Atatürk's five siblings died at an early age, Makbule (Atadan) and lived until 1956.

As the age of a small neighborhood school education in Hafiz Mehmet Efendi began, his father's desire to master the School passed. In the meantime, lost his father (1888). For a while, returned to Salonika to finish school after their stay next to his uncle's farm in Rapla. Was signed in Thessaloniki. A short time later entered the Military Junior High School in 1893. This school math teacher Mustafa Bey, on behalf of the "added" Kemal said. Between 1896-1899 the monastery Military İdâdi'sini finish, started studying at the Military School in Istanbul. He graduated in 1902 with the rank of lieutenant., Military Academy and went on. 11 January 1905 completed the Academy with the rank of captain. Between the years 1905-1907 in Damascus 5 He worked under the command of the Army. 1907 (Senior Captain) was. III to the monastery. Assigned to the Army. 19 April 1909, was the Chief of Staff of the Army Corps which entered Istanbul. Sent to France in 1910. Attended the Picardie maneuvers. In 1911 he began work at the General Staff in Istanbul.

Italian attack on Tripoli in 1911, starting with the war, Mustafa Kemal, together with a group of friends took part in Tobruk and Derna. 22 December 1911, won the Battle of Tobruk against the Italians. 6 March 1912, was appointed Commander of the Association.

Balkan War started in October 1912, Mustafa Kemal joined the battle with units from Gallipoli and. Dimetoka back to the conquest of Edirne and was the great service. In 1913 he was appointed military attache in Sofia. In this role, while in 1914 rose. Military attache ended in January 1915. In the meantime, I World War II began, the Ottoman Empire was forced to go to war. Mustafa Kemal, 19 Tekirdağ Division was commissioned to set up.

I started in 1914 World War II, the Allied forces of Mustafa Kemal in Gallipoli write a heroic epic "Gallipoli Impassable. 18 March 1915 to cross the Dardanelles with the British and French fleet suffered heavy losses, decided to remove troops from the Gallipoli Peninsula. 25 April 1915, the enemy forces, Mustafa Kemal's command of the 19th Division stopped. Mustafa Kemal promoted to full colonel after this success. 6-7 August 1915 was to attack. Victory Group Commander Mustafa Kemal won the Suvla Suvla on August 9-10. This victory in August 17 Kirectepe, 21 August, II. Anafartalar victories followed. Approximately 253,000 killed in the Gallipoli Campaign against the Allied forces who knew how to protect the dignity of the Turkish nation. Mustafa Kemal's soldiers, "I am ordering you to attack, ordered me to die!" changed the fate of the order.

After 1916, Mustafa Kemal served in Edirne and Diyarbakir. 1 April 1916, promoted to brigadier general. He fought against the Russian forces recaptured Mus and Bitlis. After short duties in Damascus and Aleppo in 1917, arrived in Istanbul. Crown Vahdeddin Effendi by going to Germany visited the front. Sick after this trip. Received treatment in Vienna and Carlsbad. August 15, 1918 Aleppo, 7 Returned as the Commander of the Army. This has made successful defensive battles against the British forces at the front. A day after signing of the armistice Armistice, 31 October 1918, was appointed Commander of Lightning Group of Armies. The abolition of the army to come to Istanbul on November 13, 1918, the Ministry of War (the Ministry) took office.

After the Armistice Armistice, the Allied forces started to take over the Ottoman armies, Mustafa Kemal 9 Army Inspector General went to Samsun on May 19, 1919. 22 June 1919, issued the Amasya Circular, "the nation's determination and decision will restore the nation's independence," declared the meeting called on the Sivas Congress. 23 July to 7 August 1919 between Erzurum, 4 - 11 September 1919 between the Sivas Congress gathered to be followed for determining the path to the liberation of the homeland. December 27, 1919 in Ankara, met with great enthusiasm. 23 April 1920, the opening of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey is an important step was taken towards the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal was elected President of the Assembly and the Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, to accept and implement the laws required for the successful War of Independence began.

May 15, 1919 Turkish War of Independence against the enemy during the occupation of Izmir by the Greeks began the first bullet shot. Treaty of Sevres signed on 10 August 1920 between the Ottoman Empire I. Against the victors of World War II before the militia forces called Kuva-yi Milli. Turkey Grand National Assembly established a regular army, National KUVAN-yi - the integration of the army the war resulted in victory.


>>Sarikamis (September 20, 1920), Kars (30 October 1920) and (7 November 1920) recovered.

>>Çukurova, Gazi Antep, Sanli Urfa defenses Kahraman Maras (1919 - 1921)

>>I. Victory (6 to 10 January 1921)

>>II. Victory (March 23-April 1 1921)

>>Sakarya Victory (23 August to 13 September 1921)

>>The Great Raid, Battle of the Commander in Chief and the Great Victory (August 26, September 9, 1922)


After the Sakarya Victory, National Assembly of Turkey on September 19, 1921 Gazi Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and granted him the title. War of Independence, signed July 24, 1923 resulted in the Treaty of Lausanne. Thus, the Treaty of Sevres were smashed, the Turks, the size of 5-6 provinces left the homeland on the territory of Turkey for the establishment of national unity based on the new Turkish state was no obstacle.

The first clue to the opening of Parliament of the Republic of Turkey in Ankara on April 23, 1920. The successful management of the Assembly of Turkish War of Independence, the founding of the new Turkish state. 1 November 1922, the Caliphate and the Sultanate separated, was abolished. Administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire. 29 October 1923, the Republican administration was adopted, unanimously elected the first president of Ataturk. On October 30, 1923 was the first government of the Republic Ismet Inonu. Republic of Turkey, "Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the nation" and "peace, peace in the universe" on the foundations began to rise.


Ataturk's Turkey, "to the level of modern civilization" has made a series of reforms in order. This revolution can be grouped under five main headings:

1 Political Reforms Abolishment of the Sultanate (1 November 1922) Proclamation of the Republic (29 October 1923) Abolishment of Caliphate (3 March 1924)

2 Social revolution of equal rights to men and women (1926-1934) Revolution of Headgear and Dress (25 November 1925) Closure of mausoleums and dervish lodges (30 November 1925) The surname law (21 June 1934), Moniker, and the elimination of names (26 November 1934) International calendar, time and length of acceptance of measurements (1925-1931)

3. Law Reform: Mecelle lift (1924-1937) of the secular Turkish Civil Code and other laws passed the rule of law (1924-1937)

4 Educational and Cultural Reforms: Teaching of the merger (March 3, 1924) the adoption of the new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928) Establishment of Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931-1932) University education (31 May 1933) Innovations in fine arts

5 . Reforms in the Field of Economics: the removal of Asar Encouragement of farmers to the establishment of model farms by subtracting Industry Promotion Act to establish industrial enterprises · I. and II. Development Plans (1933-1937) is implemented, the country equipped with new ways

First name in accordance with the Law, 24 November 1934 TBMM'nce Mustafa Kemal the surname was given. Ataturk, August 13, 1923 April 24, 1920 and was elected to the Parliament. The presidential office, the level of Head of State and Government. 29 October 1923 Republic was proclaimed and Atatürk was elected the first president. According to the Constitution's presidential elections were held every four years. 1927.1931, 1935 Turkish Grand Assembly again elected to the presidency. Frequent trips out of state and inspected the work of Ataturk. Failing to give orders about the relevant directions. As president visiting foreign presidents, prime ministers and ministers welcomed.

15-20 October 1927 War of Independence and the founding of the Republic about the Great Speech, 29 October 1933 on the 10th Year Nutku'nu read. Atatürk was very modest in his private life. He married with Latife Hanim on 29 January 1923. Together they had many trips around the country. This marriage lasted until 5 August 1925. Children in Disaster-loving Ataturk (Inan), Sabiha (Gökçen), Fikri, Ulku, Nebile, Rukia, Zehra Mustafa's daughter, and adopted by the spiritual shepherd. Abdurrahim and Ihsan took the children under his protection. A good future for children who survived.

Farms to the Treasury in 1937, some land was also donated to municipalities of Ankara and Bursa. His sister, his adopted children, has allocated a share of the Turkish Language and Historical Society. Books to read, listen to music, dancing, horse riding and swimming was very severe. Zeybek dances, wrestling and the Rumelia folk songs was extremely interested. Had great pleasure in playing backgammon and billiards. His horse Sakarya and his dog Fox valued. A rich library. State dinners, scholars and artists will invite the country's problems were discussed. Be sure to dress clean and tidy. A lover of nature. I often go to Forest Farm and join in the work. He knew French and German.


ATATURK'S LAST YEARS AND DEATH

Ataturk in 1937, the first signs of disease appeared. While at the beginning of 1938 in Yalova, serious as sick. The treatment gave positive results. But Ankara completely the tiring journey, the increase caused disease. This is on the agenda at the Hatay issue was not him. Although the patient, the tour came to Mersin and Adana. Under the burning sun to do exercises and inspections of military units, fell very tired. Detriment of their health for the sake of the ideal case. Travel to the South led to an increase in disease. After his return to Ankara on May 26 went to Istanbul for treatment and rest. By doctors, was diagnosed with cirrhosis disease.

Sea for good weather, a long rest in bed. Even in this case, the problems the country has continued. Romania came to Istanbul with the king. The Council of Ministers presided over the meeting. 4 July 1938, entry into force of the Treaty was very glad to improve morale. Remaining until the end of July disease, severe was transferred to the Dolmabahce Palace. But the disease was advancing steadily. His disease, heard of the Turkish people, the excitement is followed by news about health, healing was good with all his heart. Grasp the seriousness of the disease on September 5, 1938 alth institutions donated a large portion of the Turkish History and Turkish Language. As the situation was corrected in mid-October. However, very desirable in the case, came to Ankara on the fifth anniversary of the republic was unable to attend the ceremony.

29 October 1938, the hero of the Turkish Army, sent a message read by Prime Minister Celal Bayar. "Victory, and the past history of mankind, starting with the light of civilization with the heroic Turkish army, with the victory every time!" noted the importance of the Turkish Army. Again the same message "The glory and the honor of Turkish citizens and community, internal and external to any danger to protect the mission consist of, I was ready at any moment ready to perform and believe in our great nation and a full assurance," there is also in the Turkish Army expressed its confidence.

1 November 1938, Ataturk's Turkey has been found at the opening ceremony of the Grand National Assembly. Celal Bayar, Prime Minister attended the opening Prepared Speech. Speech of Ataturk, this country's development, health services and economic activities has issues. Furthermore, education and culture, and also contacted the national youth and to grow as the modern cultural development of the University of Istanbul, Ankara University to complete and for the establishment of a university study has been done around Lake Van. Turkish History and Turkish Language Societies satisfaction was his work. In addition, the Turkish youth culture in sports as well as the implementation of the Law on Physical Education to reach the ideal stated his satisfaction. Ataturk, for a moment the question of land until his death was far away.

Ataturk's disease has intensified again. Reports published in the November 8, about health. All the land was again covered with a deep sadness. Hope to get rid of his beating heart of every Turk. However, rescue efforts, and the dread was not the result. Dolmabahce Palace on the morning of November 10, 1938 five past nine o'clock, people do not change the law, the provisions are applied. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk died. This land with news, not only the Turkish nation, the world laws. Great, all the states sent representatives to his funeral, sent messages indicating their deep respect for the founder of the Republic of Turkey. Coffin on November 16, Dolmabahce Palace, a large ceremonial hall was to bring the catafalque. Three days and three nights, a human flood of tearful against the great leader of the respect, gratitude and loyalty, he added.On November 19 Prof. funeral prayers. Serafettin Yaltkaya was made by. Outside the gates of the palace to piggyback on two general coffin is removed, the ball put in the car, between tears of the people were taken to Gulhane Park. Armored with a torpedo was transferred here. Big Island, and the navy to come to participate in the ceremony accompanied by the foreign ships brought Yavuz armored. Here, armored taken from the funeral, was a special train. Collected in the last respect to tasks assigned to their ancestors of the people left a deep sorrow in the heart of the act were brought to Ankara.

Elected president on the death of Ataturk Ismet Inonu, Turkey Grand National Assembly President, ministers, chief of staff, MPs and the army and the government by leading the funeral, in front of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was prepared to bring the catafalque. Through front with respect to the people of Ankara was the last mission of his funeral. November 21, 1938 On Monday, the civil and military administrators and representatives of foreign states in the presence of tens of thousands of people attended a ceremony was held. Then Atatürk's coffin from the catafalque. Temporary grave was prepared by the Museum of Ethnography. After the Turkish nation, worthy of this great man, a mausoleum built in Ankara Rasattepe. Naas was brought from the Ataturk Ethnography Museum, 10 November 1953. Brought here from every province of the country was prepared with the native soil was placed on eternal


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Atatürk'ün Şiirleri        ENÇOK OKUNAN


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